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Treaties Recognition Week

Treaties Recognition Week takes place from November 1 to 7, 2021.

Treaties Recognition Week was introduced in 2016 to honor the importance of treaties and to help Ontarians learn more about treaty rights and treaty relationships.​

Treaties Recognition Week: Mark Charles - The Doctrine of Discovery (November 2nd @ 5:30pm)


Presentation Link:


Treaties Recognition Week: Bob Joseph - 21 Things you may not know about the Indian Act, 1876 (November 4th @ 5:30pm)


Presentation Link:


Resources From

The following resources from the official website of the Government of Ontario provide information about the importance of treaties, treaty relationships and rights in Ontario, and about events related to Treaties Recognition Week.

Virtual Living Library events

Each year, students learn why treaties matter to all Ontarians. Indigenous speakers visit classrooms and video stories are shared in schools across the province.​ Visit the Government of Ontario's Virtual Living Library page for information on this year's events.


 Virtual Living Library Events 2021


Treaties and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Action

Recommended for: Secondary and postsecondary students and the public.
Date: November 1, 2021
Time: 1:00 – 2:00 p.m.

Join Dr. Cynthia Wesley-Esquimaux for an interactive conversation around treaties, their connection to the Truth and Reconciliation’s Calls to Action and the types of practical, actionable steps we can all take to help advance reconciliation.

About Dr. Wesley-Esquimaux: Dr. Cynthia Wesley-Esquimaux served as Vice Provost for Aboriginal Initiatives at Lakehead University for three years and was appointed the Chair for Truth and Reconciliation in 2016. She is an Honourary Witness and Chair of the Governing Circle for the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation at the University of Manitoba. She is a member and resident of the Chippewa of Georgina Island First Nation in Ontario and has dedicated her life to building bridges of understanding between peoples.


Treaties, Environment and Land: A funny story of sustainability with ONE bowl, ONE spoon and a whole lot of POPCORN!

Recommended for: Elementary students from Kindergarten - Grade 6. All ages are welcome to attend!
Date: November 2, 2021
Time: 10:30 – 11:30 a.m.

There was a time when people and animals knew that we should only take enough food and water for our own personal needs. For if we took more food and water then we needed, there may not be enough for us tomorrow. Discover how Rabbit, Bear Paws and the Animals come to this agreement, to save the food and water for tomorrow. With ONE bowl ONE spoon and a whole lot of POPCORN.

Please join us for a comical, educational and highly interactive puppet presentation.

About Rabbit and Bear Paws: The Adventures of Rabbit and Bear Paws is a graphic novel series for the young and the young at heart. The stories are set in colonized North America during the 1750s and feature the comical adventures of two brothers, Rabbit and Bear Paws, with traditional teachings sprinkled throughout. Learn more about Rabbit and Bear Paws.

Trick or Treaty?: Partnership event with Nipissing University’s Indigenous Initiatives Office featuring Maurice Switzer

Recommended for: Secondary and postsecondary students and the public.
Date: November 2, 2021
Time: 1:30 – 3:00 p.m.

The peaceful settlement of Canada was made possible when Indigenous peoples agreed to share with European settlers the lands they had occupied since time immemorial because of promises made in treaty agreements. Despite being recognized and affirmed in Canada’s Constitution Act of 1982, and by numerous Supreme Court decisions, provincial and federal governments routinely ignore these underpinnings of Canada’s rule of law.

About Maurice Switzer: Maurice Switzer, Bnesi, is a citizen of the Mississaugas of Alderville First Nation. He currently serves as chair of the Nipissing University Indigenous Council on Education and president of the North Bay Indigenous Friendship Centre. He has been a member of the Ontario Human Rights Commission, an adjunct professor of communications and Indigenous studies on the Laurentian University campus, and publisher of three Canadian daily newspapers, including the Winnipeg Free Press. He is the author of the graphic novel "We are all Treaty People", of which 15,000 copies are in circulation.

Red, Right and True: An Indigenous Worldview

Recommended for: Secondary and postsecondary students and the public.
Date: November 5, 2021
Time: 10:30 a.m.– 11:30 a.m.

Elder Dr. Duke Redbird walks us through the historical prevarications of the past and introduces us to a new worldview presented through an Indigenous Lens.

About Dr. Duke Redbird: Dr. Duke Redbird is an elder, poet, activist, educator, and artist. He holds a Master's degree from York University and received an Honorary Doctorate from the Ontario College of Art and Design (OCAD) University in 2013. He occupies the position as Elder with the following organizations: Myseum Toronto, The Toronto Biennial, Summer Works, the Toronto Arts Council's Banff Leaders Lab, and is Artist in Residence with the Urban Indigenous Education Centre at the Toronto District School Board.



The Indigenous voices on treaties video series features Indigenous speakers sharing their knowledge about the importance of treaties, treaty relationships and rights in Ontario.​



First Nations And Treaties Map (2014): The First Nations and Treaties map, published in May 2014, illustrates all of the First Nations and treaties in Ontario.

Indigenous trail markers on the TransCanada trail: Some of these markers tell stories that date back as far as the 1300s and recount Indigenous people’s agricultural, economic and cultural history. You can visit them in person or online through our interactive map. The page includes the full text of each marker and information on the Niagara Treaty.​

Treaties in Ontario infographic: The Treaties in Ontario infographic shows the number of treaties in Ontario, the regions they cover and the populations within treaty areas. The info graphic also includes information about Indigenous populations. It’s a great resource for educators, or anyone interested in learning more about these agreements.

Treaties Recognition Week poster - November 1 to 5 - In the middle of the poster is a brushwork drawing of a turtle in the blue and green colours of the earth, swimming in a red pool bordered in black and behind that is an orange background - Mark Charles - The Doctrine of Discovery - Tuesday November 2 5.30 PM to 7.00 PM - Indigenous Education Department logo and TCDSB Logo - Bob Joseph - 21 Things You May Not Know About The Indian Act - Thursday November 4 5.30 PM to 7.00PM

Teacher-Specific Resources

For more information and resources please visit the Government of Ontario's treaties page.